The foundation of the Pammachos is that of the Hellenic philosophers. As such, it is required that all youth Pammachoi must become familiar with select writings of Aesop; the well known Greek philosopher.  Note that for older students, these may seem trivial.  However, they are, in fact, relevant.  These simple writings will help older students not only understand the “base”, but “deeper” philosophies in their future studies. Aesop’s work will also aid them when they are called upon to teach/guide the younger and lower rank Pammachoi (this will be a requirement for Level 2 and Level 3).

Instructors should take the time out to present these lessons, at a frequency and method left to their discretion, in class. 

Included below is a history of Aesop.

Included below are the 15 Aesop fables, with their morals, required for youth Pankratiasts to learn for Level 1 certification. 

The Boy and the Filberts

A boy put his hand into a pitcher full of filberts.  He grasped as many as he could possibly hold, but when he tried to pull out his hand, he was prevented from doing so by the neck of the pitcher.  Unwilling to lose his filberts, and yet unable to withdraw his hand, he burst into tears and bitterly lamented his disappointment.  A bystander said to him, "Be satisfied with half

the quantity, and you will readily draw out your hand.

Moral:  Do not attempt too much at once.

The Bull and the Goat

A bull, escaping from a Lion, hid in a cave which some shepherds had recently occupied.  As soon as he entered, a He-Goat left in the cave sharply attacked him with his horns.  The Bull quietly addressed him:  "Butt away as much as you will.  I have no fear of you, but of the Lion.  Let that monster go away and I will soon let you know what is the respective strength of a Goat and a Bull." 

Moral: It shows an evil disposition to take advantage of a friend in distress. 

The Bundle of Sticks

An old man on the point of death summoned his sons around him to give them some parting advice.  He ordered his servants to bring in a faggot of sticks, and said to his eldest son: "Break

it."  The son strained and strained, but with all his efforts was unable to break the Bundle.  The other sons also tried, but none of them was successful.  "Untie the faggots," said the father, "and each of you take a stick."  When they had done so, he called out to them: "Now, break," and each stick was easily broken.  "You see my meaning," said their father.

Moral: Union gives strength.

The Crab and Its Mother 

A crab said to her son, "Why do you walk so one-sided, my child? It is far more becoming to go straight forward."  The young Crab replied:  "Quite true, dear Mother; and if you will show me the straight way, I will promise to walk in it."  The Mother tried in vain, and submitted without remonstrance to the reproof of her child.

Moral: Example is more powerful than precept

The Doe and the Lion 

A DOE hard pressed by hunters sought refuge in a cave belonging to a Lion.  The Lion concealed himself on seeing her approach, but when she was safe within the cave, sprang upon her and tore her to pieces.  "Woe is me," exclaimed the Doe, "who have escaped from man, only to throw myself into the mouth of a wild beast?

Moral: In avoiding one evil, care must be taken not to fall into another.

The Dog and the Hare 

A hound having started a Hare on the hillside pursued her for some distance, at one time biting her with his teeth as if he would take her life, and at another fawning upon her, as if in play with another dog.  The Hare said to him, "I wish you would act sincerely by me, and show yourself in your true colors.  If you are a friend, why do you bite me so hard? If an enemy, why do you fawn on me?”

Moral:  No one can be a friend if you know not whether to trust or distrust him.

The Dog and the Oyster 

A dog, used to eating eggs, saw an Oyster and, opening his mouth to its widest extent, swallowed it down with the utmost relish, supposing it to be an egg.  Soon afterwards suffering great pain in his stomach, he said, "I deserve all this torment, for my folly in thinking that everything round must be an egg."

Moral: They who act without sufficient thought, will often fall into unsuspected danger.

The Dog and the Wolf

A gaunt Wolf was almost dead with hunger when he happened to meet a House-dog who was passing by.  "Ah, Cousin," said the Dog.

"I knew how it would be; your irregular life will soon be the ruin of you.  Why do you not work steadily as I do, and get your food regularly given to you?"

"I would have no objection," said the Wolf, "if I could only get a place."

 "I will easily arrange that for you," said the Dog; "come with me to my master and you shall share my work."

So the Wolf and the Dog went towards the town together.  On the way there the Wolf noticed that the hair on a certain part of the Dog's neck was very much worn away, so he asked him how that had come about.

"Oh, it is nothing," said the Dog.  "That is only the place where the collar is put on at night to keep me chained up; it chafes a bit, but one soon gets used to it."

"Is that all?" said the Wolf.  "Then good-bye to you, Master Dog."

Moral: Better starve free than be a fat slave.

The Eagle and the Arrow 

An Eagle was soaring through the air when suddenly it heard the whizz of an Arrow, and felt itself wounded to death.  Slowly it fluttered down to the earth, with its life-blood pouring out of it.  Looking down upon the Arrow with which it had been pierced, it found that the shaft of the Arrow had been feathered with one of its own plumes.  "Alas!" it cried, as it died.

Moral: We often give our enemies the means for our own destruction.

The Fisher 

A Fisher once took his bagpipes to the bank of a river, and played upon them with the hope of making the fish rise; but never a one put his nose out of the water.  So he cast his net into the river and soon drew it forth filled with fish.  Then he took his bagpipes again, and, as he played, the fish leapt up in the net.  "Ah, you dance now when I play," said he.

"Yes," said an old Fish:

Moral: "When you are in a man's power you must do as he bids you."

The Four Oxen and the Lion 

A Lion used to prowl about a field in which Four Oxen used to dwell.  Many a time he tried to attack them; but whenever he came near they turned their tails to one another, so that whichever way he approached them he was met by the horns of one of them.  At last, however, they fell a-quarrelling among themselves, and each went off to pasture alone in a separate corner of the field.  Then the Lion attacked them one by one and soon made an end of all four.

Moral: United we stand, divided we fall.

The Goatherd and the Wild Goats 

A goatherd, driving his flock from their pasture at eventide, found some Wild Goats mingled among them, and shut them up together with his own for the night.  The next day it snowed very hard, so that he could not take the herd to their usual feeding places, but was obliged to keep them in the fold.  He gave his own goats just sufficient food to keep them alive, but fed the strangers more abundantly in the hope of enticing them to stay with him and of making them his own.  When the thaw set in, he led them all out to feed, and the Wild Goats scampered away as fast as they could to the mountains.  The Goatherd scolded them for their ingratitude in leaving him, when during the storm he had taken more care of them than of his own herd.  One of them, turning about, said to him:  "That is the very reason why we are so cautious; for if you yesterday treated us better than the Goats you have had so long, it is plain also that if others came after us, you would in the same manner prefer them to ourselves."

Moral: Old friends cannot with impunity be sacrificed for new ones.

The Goose With the Golden Eggs 

One day a countryman going to the nest of his Goose found there an egg all yellow and glittering.  When he took it up it was as heavy as lead and he was going to throw it away, because he thought a trick had been played upon him.  But he took it home on second thoughts, and soon found to his delight that it was an egg of pure gold.  Every morning the same thing occurred, and he soon became rich by selling his eggs.  As he grew rich he grew greedy; and thinking to get at once all the gold the Goose could give, he killed it and opened it only to find nothing.

Moral:  Greed often over reaches iteself

The North Wind and the Sun 

The North Wind and the Sun disputed as to which was the most powerful, and agreed that he should be declared the victor who could first strip a wayfaring man of his clothes.  The North Wind first tried his power and blew with all his might, but the keener

his blasts, the closer the Traveler wrapped his cloak around him, until at last, resigning all hope of victory, the Wind called upon the Sun to see what he could do.  The Sun suddenly shone out with all his warmth.  The Traveler no sooner felt his genial rays than he took off one garment after another, and at last, fairly overcome with heat, undressed and bathed in a stream that lay in his path.

 Moral:  Persuasion is better than Force.

The Shepherd's Boy 

There was once a young Shepherd Boy who tended his sheep at the foot of a mountain near a dark forest.  It was rather lonely for him all day, so he thought upon a plan by which he could get a little company and some excitement.  He rushed down towards the village calling out "Wolf, Wolf," and the villagers came out to meet him, and some of them stopped with him for a considerable time.  This pleased the boy so much that a few days afterwards he tried the same trick, and again the villagers came to his help. But shortly after this a Wolf actually did come out from the forest, and began to worry the sheep, and the boy of course cried out "Wolf, Wolf," still louder than before.  But this time the villagers, who had been fooled twice before, thought the boy was again deceiving them, and nobody stirred to come to his help.  So the Wolf made a good meal off the boy's flock, and when the boy complained, the wise man of the village said:

Moral:  "A liar will not be believed, even when he speaks the truth."